Unemployment is a harrowing socio-economic issue that has been plaguing India for ages. The records and citations about unemployment are managed by the Ministry of Labor and Employment. The Constitution of India clearly states that it is the responsibility of the state to provide proper employment opportunities. According to the latest figures, around 31 million people in India are unemployed; however, this figure has been widely disputed by many. According to the NSSO reports of 2017-18 unemployment in India had reached an all-time high of 6.1 percent with male youth reporting an average unemployment rate of 17 percent and female youth a rate of 20 percent respectively. The employee population within the country is estimated to grow at a rate of 8 million per annum. However, the economy remains vastly unequipped to provide employment opportunities. One of the significant issues with measuring unemployment is the different standards that are being imposed by each individual measuring body. An instance of this could be the definition of unemployment as coined by the Union Ministry which states valid employment as 30 days of work. This, however, acts against the concept of stable employment opportunities which more than half of the families do not have an income as a whole is a very unpredictable component.
The statistics provide a rather grim representation of the reality; around 67 percent of the populace earn a monthly wage below Rs.11000 and approximately 58 percent of graduates being unemployed with the number peaking to about 62 percent for postgraduate degree holders. Non-availability of adequate opportunities and a mismatch of skill sets are cited as one of the most significant contributors towards unemployment. Around 96 percent of the workforce in India has not undergone any formal training, and about 70 percent of the households were not affected by employment schemes rolled out by the government.
India has often come beneath the spotlight for the vast disparity shown between the different economic sections of the society. One of the most effective means to deal with this problem would be to improve the employment scenario within the country; however, it cannot be achieved within a day. The government within a democracy often has to function with a lot of constraints and limited capacities; however, this has led to marginal to almost no impact on the target groups. For a diverse nation like ours, employment opportunities are often deeply connected with societal perceptions and religious views.
One of the significant causes of unemployment in India can be its agrarian-based economic structure. Most of the agriculture is limited to a time span, and this can only provide cyclical employment. With the introduction of GST many medium and small-sized businesses have been adversely hit often leading to downsizing their operations. Not to mention migration plays an essential role in creating demand for unskilled labor work in urban areas which again fails to provide a means of stable income. Lastly, there is an aspiration mismatch when it comes to the youth of today. Many are willing, but opportunities are only a few.